The Ritva writes that one would be permitted to wear on Yom Kippur a tallis that contains gold in it since this is regarded as “outside” and not “inside.” The principle of en kategor na'aseh sanegor only applies “inside.”
Reb Akiva Eiger in his gloss on Shulchan Aruch (O”C 610) quotes from the Pri Megadim that are certain localities that have the custom not to wear gold on Yom Kippur but women and Levi’im are not included in this since they did not donate any gold for the golden calf.
In the sefer, Avodah Berurah, a question is asked that we do not find the principle of en kategor na'aseh sanegor by tefillah since tefillah is regarded as “outside” and not “inside.”
Sefer Chasidim (249) writes that the principle of en kategor na'aseh sanegor does apply by tefillah. He is referring to a case where one wrote a siddur for his friend but he didn’t write the siddur for the sake of Heaven and the friend’s prayers were never answered when using this particular siddur.
Beis Halevi in his droshos (15) explains why the principle of en kategor na'aseh sanegor does apply by tefillah even though the tefillah is not recited inside the Holy of Holies. It is based on the Gemora in Brochos 28b which rules that one who prays should always turn his heart towards the Holy of Holies and therefore tefillah is considered “inside.”