Monday, January 08, 2007

Daf Yomi - Rosh Hashana 35 - Highlights


The Mishna had stated that if one davened Mussaf without hearing the shofar and later a shofar became available to him, he should blow the shofar then. It can be implied from the Mishna that if he would have had the shofar at the time that he was davening Mussaf, he should blow then according to the order of the brochos even though he is davening by himself.

The Gemora records a connected incident. Rav Pappa was davening by himself and he told his attendant that when he signals to him that he finished one of the brochos, he should blow the shofar for him. Rava said to Rav Pappa that shofar is blown together with the brochos only by the congregation and not when an individual is davening.

The Gemora cites a braisa which supports Rava’s viewpoint. The braisa states explicitly that the shofar is blown according to the brochos when the congregation is davening and not by the tefillah of an individual.

The braisa continues that one who did not blow shofar may hear it from someone else but one who did not recite the brochos of Mussaf may not fulfill his obligation by hearing it from someone else.

The final halacha in the braisa is that the Biblical mitzva of hearing shofar takes precedence over the Rabbinical mitzva of davening Mussaf. If there is one city that he can certainly hear tefillas Mussaf and another city where he might hear the shofar (if he arrives on time), he should go to the city where the shofar will be blown even though he might arrive too late and thereby miss the blowing of the shofar. (34b)


The Mishna had stated that each individual must recite the tefillah himself and cannot rely on the tefillah of the leader to fulfill his obligation. Rabban Gamliel disagreed and maintains that the leader can discharge the congregation’s obligation for them.

Rabban Gamliel is cited in a braisa explaining as to why the congregation davens before the leader davens out loud. He says that it is to give the leader time to prepare his tefillah. Rabban Gamliel asked the Sages why the leader davens out loud if the congregation does not fulfill their obligation by listening to him. They responded that one who doesn’t know how to daven will fulfill his obligation by listening to him. Rabban Gamliel replied that just like the leader can discharge the obligation of someone who cannot daven, so too he can discharge the obligation of someone who has the ability to daven himself and chooses not to.

There is a discussion in the Gemora if the Sages ultimately agreed with Rabban Gamliel that the leader can discharge the congregation’s obligation for tefillah even though they are able to daven themselves.

Rabbi Meir conceded to the opinion of Rabban Gamliel in regards to the tefillah of Rosh Hashanah and Yovel. The Gemora explains that since the tefillah contains many lengthy brochos and people can become confused, the leader can discharge the congregation’s obligation for this tefillah. (34b – 35a)


Rabbi Elozar states that one should prepare his tefillah in advance and only then should he begin to daven. Rabbi Abba qualified this ruling to be referring to the tefillah of Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and other festivals; however this would not be necessary for the tefillos of the entire year, which are commonly recited.

Rav Yehuda would finish reviewing his learning every thirty days and only then would he have time to daven. He would prepare his tefillah beforehand since he only davened once every thirty days. (35a)


It was said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Chasida that Rabban Gamliel exempted only the people working in the fields from davening themselves and they can rely on the leader’s tefillah because they are preoccupied with their work; however people who are in the city must daven themselves. This is analogous to the halacha regarding the people who stand behind the kohanim during the Priestly Blessing. The people in the shul are not included in the kohanim’s brocha since they have the opportunity to stand before the kohanim. The people in the fields are included in their brocha since they are preoccupied with their work and are unable to come. (35a)