Friday, May 04, 2007

Daf Yomi - Chagigah 25 - WOMEN ENTERING A SYNAGOGUE AND PRAYING WHILE THEY ARE A NIDDAH

The Rema in Orach Chaim 88 quotes sources who maintain that a woman should not enter a synagogue while she is a niddah. Furthermore, a woman who is a niddah should not pray, mention the Name of Hashem or even touch a sefer. The Rema also quotes sources who disagree with this ruling. The Rema concludes that the custom is in accordance with the first opinion. However, the Rema limits this restriction to a woman who is still menstruating whereas a woman who has ceased to see a flow but is in the stage of becoming pure is not restricted from entering a synagogue, praying, reciting the Name of HaShem or from touching a sefer. He concludes that even in places that are strict in these matters, it would be permitted for them to come to the synagogue on the High Holy Days and any time that that there are a multitude of people going since otherwise, they would feel distressed.

The Magen Avraham writes: Since it is permitted for them to enter the synagogue, they are allowed to pray, as well. He cites a Gemora in Yevamos as a support (hint) for this ruling. The Gemora states that one who is a metzora and also a baal keri is still permitted to insert parts of his body into the Courtyard of the Temple. One who has tzaraas is prohibited from entering the Courtyard except to have the blood placement procedure on the eighth day. Since the Torah waives the restriction for a regular metzora, it is waived for a baal keri, as well.

The Chasam Sofer in his notes on Orach Chaim asks on the Magen Avraham: One who is tamei cannot enter the Courtyard; if the Torah waives this action despite the fact that he has tzaraas, it stands to reason that the same action will be permitted despite the fact that he is also a baal keri. Regarding a woman entering a synagogue while she is a niddah and also praying; there are two prohibitions that we need to override. Just because we permit her to enter the synagogue, what is the proof that she will be permitted to pray, as well?

The Rav Peolim (I, O”C 23) cites our Gemora as support for the Magen Avraham.

The Mishna had stated: If the wine-pressing and olive-pressing season has passed, and the am haaretz said to the Kohen, “I have set apart a quarter-log of oil to be kodesh,” he is deemed trustworthy even in regards to the terumah.

The Gemora cites a Mishna in Oholos (18:4): Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel agree that we check a beis haperas (a field in which the grave had been plowed over) for bone chips on the account of people who are on their way to offer the korban pesach (the sages decreed that the field is tamei since there might be bone fragments there, but the decree is removed in this situation), but we do not check on the beis haperas for people wishing to eat terumah.

The Gemora asks: How do we accomplish this checking? Rav Yehudah says in the name of Shmuel: The person blows on the beis haperas and then he can walk through it. Rabbi Chiya bar Abba says in the name of Ula: A beis haperas that has been sufficiently trampled on by many people is tahor (the bone pieces will be pushed to the side); they would check to see if this indeed was the case.

The Gemora explains why the decree was removed on the account of the people who are on their way to offer the korban pesach and not for the people wishing to eat terumah.

One who doesn’t offer a korban pesach is subject to the punishment of kares and therefore the sages waived the regular decree; they did not waive the decree to allow people to eat terumah since one who eats terumah while tamei is subject to death at the hands of Heaven (and there is no hurry to eat the terumah).

The Gemora inquires: If he checked the beis haperas because he wished to perform the korban pesach, can he eat terumah based upon that checking?

Ula says that he may eat terumah and Rabbah bar Ula says that he is forbidden from eating terumah.

There was an elder who said to Rabbah bar Ula that he should not disagree with Ula for the Mishna is proof to him. The Mishna had stated: If the wine-pressing and olive-pressing season has passed, and the am haaretz said to the Kohen, “I have set apart a quarter-log of oil to be kodesh,” he is deemed trustworthy even in regards to the terumah. It is evident that since he is believed in regards to the oil which is kodesh that it is tahor, he is believed regarding the terumah, as well; so too here, since we rely upon the checking for the korban pesach, it can be relied upon for terumah, as well.

It emerges that we apply this principle even though it involves two actions. We trust the am haaretz regarding the kodesh portion of the oil and because of that, we trust him on the terumah portion, and one would be permitted to partake in the terumah, as well.

4 comments:

Ben said...

The hardest one to understand here is that a woman who is a niddah cannot mention the Name of HaShem. How does a woman ever recite brachos then?

Avromi said...

The Magen Avraham discusses birchas hamazon which is d'oraysa and kiddush - he does say that it might be preferable for her to hear someone else and be yotzei with them.

Avromi said...

Mishna Berura concludes that there is no prohibition and she should daven and recite all the brochos - she shouldn't look at the sefer torah during hagbaah.

Pilpul said...

Is the issur of entering and the issur of davening one and the same or two different ones?