Thursday, May 03, 2007

Daf Yomi - Chagigah Daf 24 - Highlights

The Mishna had stated: A vessel combines all of its contents together for kodesh (if one piece becomes tamei, they all become tamei even if they are not touching each other), but not for terumah.

Rabbi Chanin cites the Scriptural source for this: It is written [Bamidbar 17:14]: One gold ladle of ten shekels, filled with incense. By the fact that the Torah said “one ladle,” and not “a ladle,” this teaches us that all the incense of kodesh was regarded as one. Since the verse is referring to kodesh, the rule is restricted to kodesh and not to terumah.

Rav Kahana asks from a Mishna in Eduyos [8:1]: Rabbi Akiva added the fine flour of kodesh, the incense, the frankincense and the coals to the rule that if a tevul yom (one who has immersed in a mikvah but still has tumah on him until nightfall) touched part of it, it renders all of it unfit.

It is evident from Rabbi Akiva that this is a merely a Rabbinic injunction and yet Rabbi Chanin derived this rule from a verse in the Torah, which would indicate that the rule is a Biblical one?

Rish Lakish answers in the name of Bar Kappara: It is indeed a Biblical rule, but only when a vessel is required for that particular substance, however, when a vessel is not required, the rule that the vessel combines all of its contents is only a Rabbinic one. Rabbi Akiva is referring to the remainder of the mincha, where there is no necessity to place it in a vessel.

The Gemora asks: This explains Rabbi Akiva’s testimony regarding flour; how would we explain his testimony regarding the incense and the frankincense?

Rav Nachman answered in the name of Rabbah bar Avuha: Rabbi Akiva is referring to a case where the incense or the frankincense was placed on a leather-spread (which is not a receptacle). The Biblical rule that a vessel can combine all of its contents is limited to a vessel that has an inside, but one that doesn’t (such as this leather-spread) will only combine its contents Rabbinically. (23b – 24a)

The Mishna had stated: Tumah of kodesh extends to a fourth level (revii), while that of terumah extends only to a third level (shlishi).

Rabbi Yosi taught in a braisa: How do we know that a revii by kodesh is pasul? (The term “tamei” describes something that it itself is contaminated and it can transmit tumah to another item; “pasul” means that it itself is contaminated, but it cannot transmit tumah to another item.) He answers that this is derived through a kal vachomer: We find by a mechusar kippurim (one who is lacking atonement) that he is permitted to eat terumah, nevertheless, he is forbidden from eating kodesh (this indicates that we are stricter in respect to kodesh than we are in regards to terumah); so a shlishi, which is pasul by terumah should certainly have the ability to render a revii by kodesh.

The Gemora states: A shlishi by kodesh is derived through a Scriptural verse. (24a)

The Mishna had stated: Regarding terumah, if one’s hand becomes tamei, the other hand remains tahor, while for kodesh, one must immerse both hands, because one hand contaminates the other for kodesh but not for terumah.

Rav Shizbi says: The Mishna’s rule only applies when the hand which is tamei is touching the hand which is tahor while the tahor hand is holding a consecrated item (the Chachamim were concerned that his tamei hand might come into contact with the kodesh); however, the consecrated item will not become pasul if the tamei hand touches the hand which is tahor and afterwards the tahor hand touches a consecrated item.

Abaye asks on Rav Shizbi from a braisa which would indicate that one hand can render the other hand tamei even if the tahor hand is not in contact with the kodesh. (24a)

Rish Lakish maintains that a hand which is tamei can render his other hand tamei, but it cannot render someone else’s hand tamei. Rabbi Yochanan disagrees and states: The hand which is tamei can render his own hand tamei and the hand of his friend, as well. Only the original hand which was tamei can render his friend’s hand tamei. When we say that one hand can render his other hand tamei, the meaning is that the second hand can now render kodesh unfit, but it cannot make kodesh tamei. (His second hand is regarded as a shlishi and it can only bring about a revii, which is pasul, but not tamei.)

The Gemora states: Rish Lakish retracted from his initial opinion and follows Rabbi Yochanan’s viewpoint. (24a – 24b)

The Mishna had stated: One may eat dry terumah foods with hands that are tamei, but not kodesh foods.

Rabbi Chanina ben Antignos taught in a braisa: (The significance of the food being dry is that it is not susceptible to become tamei – only food which was wet can become tamei.) What is the novelty in teaching that the kodesh can become tamei even though it is dry; kodesh can become tamei even without becoming wet through the principle of “the esteem for kodesh” prepares the foods to become tamei?

The Gemora answers that the Mishna is referring to a case where one’s friend stuck kodesh foods into his mouth or he stuck them in himself using a toothpick or a stick, and he wanted to eat a radish or onion of chulin with them. The Chachamim decreed that this should not be done when his hands are tamei because his hands which are tamei might come into contact with the kodesh in his mouth; they were not concerned regarding terumah and relied on the fact that he will be careful. This was only permitted if the chulin food was dry. If the chulin was wet, it would be forbidden for him to simultaneously eat the terumah since his tamei hand (a sheini) might touch the liquid on the chulin, rendering it a rishon, which will then make the chulin food into a sheini. Subsequently, the chulin food which is a sheini will render the terumah which is in his mouth into a shlishi. (24b)

The Mishna had stated: An onein (one whose close relative passed away and has not been buried yet), a mechusar kippurim (one who is lacking atonement) require immersion for kodesh, but not for terumah.

The Gemora asks: What is the reason for this?

The Gemora answers: Since they were forbidden from eating kodesh up until now, The Chachamim required them to immerse in a mikvah before eating kodesh. (They were concerned for the following: Just like they had diverted their attention from eating kodesh, they might also divert their attention from guarding themselves not to become tamei in a manner that would prevent them from eating kodesh.) (24b)