Wednesday, November 01, 2006

Daf Yomi - Beitza 5 - Decrees where the reason does not apply any longer

Rabbah maintained that Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai rescinded the prohibition against accepting witnesses after the offering of the afternoon tamid sacrifice, and subsequently an egg that was laid on the first day of Rosh HaShanah was permitted to be eaten on the second day. Rav Yosef challenged Rabbah’s ruling because if the Chachamim assembled to render a ruling, they would need to reassemble to revoke their ruling. Rav Yosef added that one could not say that Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai convened with his colleagues to permit one to eat the egg, because their decision was only to accept the testimony after the offering of the afternoon tamid sacrifice, but they never took a vote on permitting the egg to be eaten.

Tosfos rules that a matter that was only prohibited for a specific amount of time will be permitted once that time period elapses. Tosfos on Daf 6 writes that a matter that was only prohibited because of a specific concern will be permitted when the concern no longer exists. This principle justifies why we do not have to be concerned for water that was exposed at night and one is allowed to drink from it because in modern times snakes are not frequent in our homes.

Tosfos HaRosh in Avodah Zara (2a) rules that one is permitted to conduct business with gentiles during their holiday season as initially this was prohibited because gentiles in the past worshipped idols and now that gentiles do not worship idols, the decree is irrelevant.

Tosfos in Brachos (53b) writes that people are not scrupulous regarding mayim acharonim , washing the hands at the end of a meal, because we no longer have melach sedomis, salt from Sodom. Tosfos notes that although the practice of washing mayim achronmim was instituted by an assembly of a Bais Din, this institution was not unanimously accepted and thus this institution is not categorized as a ruling that is irrevocable unless a Bais Din reassembles and rescinds the ruling.

Reb Shlomo Kluger in Elef Lecho Shlomo (116) rules that one is permitted to learn by candlelight on Shabbos and we are not concerned that he may come to move the wick which will cause the fire to burn brighter, thus violating a biblical prohibition, because one does not need to move the wick of our present-day candles.

Teshuvos HaRosh (klal 2:8) rules that one is permitted to tie strings of linen on a four-cornered garment that is made from linen to fulfill the mitzvah of tzitzis and we are not concerned that one might tie strings of wool to the garment. The reason for this ruling is because all know that techeiles, a blue-dyed wool used for tzitzis, is not prevalent, thus there is no permit to tie strings of wool to a linen garment.

Teshuvos HaRosh writes that if is common knowledge why a decree was instituted and the rationale no longer applies, then the decree is considered irrelevant. Teshuvos HaRosh draws a contrast of this supposition to the case in our Gemara regarding the egg that was laid on the first day of Rosh HaShanah, because some people are not aware whey the egg was initially prohibited, nor do they understand why the reason to prohibit no longer applies.

Shearim Mitzuyanim B’Halacha rules that if necessary, one is permitted to take medicine on Shabbos. Taking medicine on Shabbos was initially forbidden as there was a concern that one would violate the prohibition of grinding. Now that medicine is prepared by the manufacturer and most people are not even aware of the process involved in manufacturing the medicine, there is no longer a concern that one who wishes to take medicine will violate the Shabbos prohibition of grinding herbs or spices.


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5 comments:

Leapa said...

Apropos to gezeiros which may no longer apply, and the Daf.

1. Why is Rosh Hoshana on the first and second day of Tishrei, rather than on the 30th of Elul and the first of Tishrei?

2. Why is Rosh Hoshana 2 days in Israel?

Avromi said...

Rava on daf 5b on the bottom learns that even after the churban if witnesses came after mincha, both days would be kodosh and the original takanah of both days being one kedusha still remained.
this says the Rosh is the source for E"Y to still have two days now.

Look in Baal Hamaor whi disagrees and actually states that there was a long period of time kept only one day.Milchamos (Ramban) disagrees vehemently.

Avromi said...

I found this elsewhere and I disagree below:

TheProf said...

The reason Rosh Hashono is on 1 and 2 Tishrei and not 30 Elul and 1 Tishrei like other molei month end Rosh Chodesh is that the 1st day of Rosh Hashono would then actually be the last day of last year. Since the 1st day is actually 1 Tishrei, all of the Yomtov is in the New Year.
The reason it is also 2 days in Israel is because when Chazal originally made Rosh Hashono 2 days, it was during the time of the Bais Hamikdosh and the concept remained after the Churban because of the concept of "ishtaked", people may forget from year to year and observe the Yomtov on the wrong date.

here's why:

I would disagree with the professor since rashi on today's daf explicitly states that when the witnesses didnot come until mincha, both days would be rosh hashana and the first day would be elul 30 and the next day 1 tishrei.

David said...

These Poskim write that if the reason is not longer valid, the decree is no longer valid. In fact, that is one of the reasons we are allowed to dance and clap our hands on shabbos, even though it was originally outlawed for fear one might come to fashion an instrument - it is becasue we are not skilled enough. I beleive the Rama states this, but he is challenged by the Magen Avraham.

Question: The reason we are prohibited from swimming on Shabbos is b/c we are concerned one may come to make a flotation device. ( Contrary to the popular idea that it has to do with squezzing hair). But how many peopel today can do this? Should we then be permitted to swim on Shabbos

ben said...

From: Rabbi Doniel Neustadt.

Firstly making a floating device is a lot less complicated than making a musical instrument. Any geshikete fellow can make a makeshift floating device

Secondly, the Rama's shita is very difficult to understand even by music, and we dare not stretch it any more

Thirdly, and most important, the real reason why nowadays we do not swim is because of the old minghag Yisrael not to dip one's entire body on Shabbos even in cold water because of the concern that it may lead to sechitah or carrying; see Mishnah Berurah 326:21.